Building Construction – Process, components and materials

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Building Construction - Process, components and materials

In this post we will study about building construction step by step process and  building components,

Building Construction - Process, components and materials

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

Building a construction step involved in any type of construction is not an easy task perhaps it requires lots of afford and investment although for building construction requires lots of time and it is tedious work yet its result is a permanent asset for us therefore care should be taken in building construction process before planning building construction projects must consider important aspects like the purpose of construction, utility, financial proficiency the demand for work, etc.

Construction of residential building required following paperwork before the start of actual construction.

These steps are of pre-construction phase➱

➱To acquire lend or plot.
➱Preparation of drawings as per requirements of consumers.
➱Estimation of material cost, labor cost and contingencies.
➱Approval of drawings and estimates from client.
➱Approval of drawings from City Development Authority.
➱Start of construction work either through contractor or laborer hired on daily basis.
➱Marking of plot boundaries.
➱Cleaning of plot.
➱Preparation of site layout as per drawing.

 To acquire lend or plot➱ 

➱It is the most important step in building construction.
➱Search for the location for the building which is best suited for building construction purposes.
➱Be careful while selecting land which has all the desired facilities available nearby and should be free from all land related issues.
➱It is suggested that do prior data collection before buying land or plot either by doing research online or seek help from real estate agents or concerned persons regarding the effective cost of the same.

 To seek technical help➱

 After selection proper land for Construction take the help of a Well known architect to make available building designs and drawing and take his/her Suggestion.

An architect will prepare the plan as per  requirement of building ,number of flats shops, According to your requirements and budget.

Then the Architect will meet and consult with An Engineer to get the details of the reinforcements and other materials to be used.How deep the foundation is going to be, width of pillar etc.

Preparing estimate and budget➱

The construction of a building Consumes a big amount of material and money. after, planning and structural detailing completed these details are transferred to the building estimator.

The building estimator will estimate the material quantity quantity of different items of work, and prepare an abstract sheet that shows the cost of building construction. if financial resources are limited we need to seek pre-approval for loans in advance or else you may end up in a cash crunch situation.

Permission from authorities➱

This is important work to do after the project is ready to be executed for that we have to take permission from the local municipal body before you could go for the construction.

Following are the list of document project required before applying for permission this document may differ from state, to state but some are essential for every building construction work.

➱Land survey:➮ survey of the land has to be carried out with the help of authorized land surveyor.
➱Soil test report of the land.
➱Land documents.
➱Architecture / elevation / sectional drawings.
➱Structural report.
➱Architect certificate of undertaking on record and certificate of the undertaking of civil engineer on record.

Approach a builder➱ 

A builder or contractor for construction must be chosen carefully because it is a mature for securing building construction quality and timely construction of work.

Pre-investigation must be done about the builder before handing work in the contract document, all the work related details must be clearly stated.

The Layouts and works details along with methods of payments time, cost and scale should be covered,

All The terms and conditions of contract should be check deeply before finalizing the deal of contract.

You must Read The Details about Pile load test click here

Building construction steps 

During building construction steps:➯
➱Site preparation or leveling work.
➱Excavation and PPC.
➱Foundation.
➱Plinth beam or slab.
➱Superstructure column.
➱Brick masonry work.
➱The lintel over door window gaps.
➱Floor slab or roof structure.
➱Door window framing and fixations.
➱Electrical and plumbing.
➱Exterior finishing.
➱Terrace and roof finishing.
➱Internal finishes.
➱Woodwork and fixture fittings.

 Site preparation or leveling➱

The construction site must be cleaned before the work is executed. this work involves the removal of roots of trees, debris and leveling ground area,

Earth work ➱

Generally excavation is carried out for the construction of wall foundations excavation should be carried out as per the drawings defined lengths and widths. after excavation, layout the foundation and back fill the remaining excavated area around foundation with soil.

In Residential buildings the floor levels is kept higher than the natural ground levels, Soil will be filled up to floor l levels and compacted,

Building Construction - Process, components and materials
Building Construction - Process, components and materials

Excavation and PCC➱ 

Excavation of foundation of building will be done with help of machines as per dimensions and measurements available in the drawing.

After Excavation, The Excavated area will leveled as per requirement and PCC (Plain Cement Concrete) Layer will be Laid Before Fixing the Reinforcements,

Foundation➱

The Base of the building is supported in the Lower most part of the building which is “foundation”.And the Foundation is directly connected with The earth soil. a building is load transferred from the superstructure to the soil and needs to be extremely strong to handle the load.
When the PCC layer is laid , The reinforcement work for foundation is started, After reinforcement is fixed , the bottom level must be checked before concreting, and The Gap between the foundation will be filled with earth soil.

Concrete work in foundation➱

It is too much necessary to check the levels of foundation prior to concrete. level the foundation base to same level now pour the concrete as per drawing specifications. Normally the concrete of ratio 1 : 4 : 8 is used for foundation, sometimes it is even Used the ratio of  1:5:10 or 1 : 6 : 20.

Here 1 : 4 : 8 means,

1 Part cement per cubic
4 Parts of sand per cubic
8 Parts of coarse aggregates,

Depth of foundation is generally 9″ to 18″ and in the maximum cases it is taken as 12″. The foundation width is equals to the depth of foundation.

Damp-proof course (D.P.C)➱ 

To protect walls from moisture, a layer of damp proof course material is laid down at floor level. i inch thick concrete layer is used. material of damp-proof course layer consists of concrete ratio 1 : 1.5 : 3 with a mixture of waterproof material 1 kilogram per bag.

Plinth beam and slab:➮

After the foundation work is done ground beam form-work preparation is started and poured with concrete.over the plinth beam, masonry work is started.

Superstructure -column:➮

The superstructure is the portion above the plinth level of the building the main component of the superstructure is a column and beam.

Brick masonry work➱ 

After Column and beam frame work is complete, Masonry works will be started with defferent materials like bricks, concrete ,blocks fly ash bricks etc. As per building drawing.

➱Masonry work is done using a cement mortar mix.
➱It is a mixture of cement and sand.

➱Masonry work is carried out with cement mortar.
➱Cement mortar is a mixture of cement and sand.
➱Ratio of cement mortar varies from 1 : 4 to 1 : 6 here 1 : 6 mean one part cement and 6 part of sand.
➱Dampen about 25 bricks with a hose pipe and clean away all loose dirt from the top of footing and moisten about a meter of surface at one end of the foundation with the hose pipe.
➱Throw a Matar line just behind the threaded level line and lay bricks on the mortar bed.
➱Make sure bricks exactly follow the threaded horizontal level line.

The lintel / door window gaps➱

➱The lintel is constructed on the door and window to support the masonry work over it . after this further masonry work is done.
➱Masonry work of buildings is carried out in one go till roof.
➱Openings for windows and doors are left during masonry Works.
➱Reinforced cement concrete beams are laid down on the top of openings so those loads of structure above openings not directly come on to the door frames.

Roofing➱ 

Roof slab of building is poured after completion of masonry Works nowadays roofing is of reinforced cement concrete slab.

Slab thickness and reinforcement details should be according to approved drawings.

Floor slab or roof structure➱ 

Then the form-work is started to construct slab resting on the column and beam. over slab form-work, slab reinforcement is placed as per slab detailed drawing.

Door window framing and fixations➱ 

After that door window frames are fixed at their specified position given in drawing.

Doors and windows➱

Traditionally, doors and windows of woods are used but steel and aluminum is also not a bad choice.

In case of wooden doors and windows, frames are fixed in walls during masonry work. panels are then fixed with hinges after plaster work.

Electrical and plumbing➱ 

Electrical and plumbings are fixed in the walls and slabs in such a way that they are concealed and not visible. after the finishing work is done. the point and pipe and left out such that later they can be finished with the electric fitting and plumbing fixtures.

Exterior finishing➱ 

Once this work is completed external plastering and finishing work is started waterproofing is also done to prevent rising dampness in the wall external cladding can also be done to enhance the elevation of the house.

Plastering and pointing:➱ 

Form-work will be  removed only after 14 days of casting of slab After removing Form work plaster work will be started, mortar for plaster work is normally of 1:3 or 1:4 to be used, thickness of plaster layers should not be greater than 0.75 inch cure the surface about 7 days so that plaster gain proper strength.

Terrace and roof finishing➱ 

On top of the slab waterproofing is done to prevent any leakage in the slab. generally, terrazzo tiling is done to prevent the slab from a weathering effect.

Internal finishing➱ 

Internal walls are plaster with smooth finish and flooring is done with tiles later on the walls are painted or textured.

Woodwork and fixture fittings➱ 

After completing the above work the furniture work will be started. side by side electrical fitting, switchboard, and plumbing fittings are complete in the bathrooms and kitchen areas too.

The final and the last process of building construction is interior decoration work. Proper furnishing and fabric is used to complete the building construction.  

Services➱ 

There different types of services which provide are as following-

➱These are electricity supply, gas supply, water supply, sanitary etc Conduit’s for electric supply are fixed in walls before plastering.

➱Similarly water supply and sanitary lines are also laid before pouring of building floor note that gas lines are not fixed in walls or slabs.

➱Gas line remains open in air.

Structural components of building and their standard dimensions➱ 

The structural components or essential elements of any building. without this structural building not able to stand and sustain its position on the ground. this components systems provide strength, stability, support and durability guarantee in structural component systems.

What is High performance concrete click to know

Following his list of building components➱ 

➮Foundation
➮Plingth
➮Earth filling
➮DPC(damp-proof course)
➮Flooring
➮Walls
➮RCC column
➮Sill level
➮Lintel
➮Ceiling
➮Chhajjas
➮RCC beam
➮Roof or slab
➮Doors
➮Windows
➮Parapet walls
➮Waterproofing on terrace
➮Coping

Building Construction - Process, components and materials

Structural components of building➱ 

Foundation➯ 

A foundation is the lowest part of building structure rested on soil below ground level. all loads of building transferred to foundation through beam and column arrangement. its main function is to distribute the load evenly and safely to the ground.

In frame structure, footings are generally used as foundation to support structural load of building.

Building Construction - Process, components and materials

Following our various types of foundations and footings used in construction: 

Shallow foundation➯ 

➮Individual footing or isolated footing
➮Combined footing
➮Strip foundation
➮Raft or mat foundation

Deep foundation➱ 

➮Pile foundation
➮Drilled shafts or caissons

Standard dimensions:➱ 

Foundation size depth totally depends on the structural and site ground condition so there are no standard dimension commendations for it.

But for small structural like rowhouses depth of foundation should be at least 1.5 m from ground level.

Plinth level➱ 

Plinth level or plinth is the offset created between ground level and superstructure of the ding. it is made by constructing a brick wall from ground level to the ring level of the building.

Its main function is to prevent the entry of moisture from the surface to the building superstructure.

Standard dimensions➱

Plinth height of any building must be at least 45 centimetres from the ground level.

What is Standard Proctor compaction test of soil 

Earth filling➱ 

An earth filling or soil filling is done between the plinth wall. it is essential to fill the open space left between the ground level to the plinth level earth filling must be very well compacted. so that the flooring gets sufficient hard surface base.

Standard dimensions➱ 

Earth must be filled to the top of the plinth level different materials can utilize as Earth fill like soil, coarse aggregate, waste materials brickbat etc.

DPC(Damp-proof course)➱ 

DPC is a lighter of waterproofing materials such as asphalt or waterproof cement at the plinth level the superstructure walls are constructed above the DPC layer so that no dampness rises from the ground surface into walls.

In sort, DPC present the rise of water to superstructure if dampness rises in the wall of the superstore it reduces the strength of the walls and creates unhealthy living conditions. also it created defects in paint and plaster and ultimately increase maintenance cost.

In the case of plinth beams are provided above ground level DPC is not required because plinth beam itself performs as a DPC layer to restrict the entry of dampness.

Building Construction - Process, components and materials

Standard dimensions➱ 

generally DPC is late on brick masonry construction up to the plinth level so the width of DPC is the same as the width of the brick wall and thickness may vary from 2.5 centimetres to 5 centimetres.

Flooring➱ 

Flooring is an important component of the home it is one which provided an attractive and pleasant look to the house flooring is made by laying tile on it.

There are different designs and materials are available to make flooring.

➮Timber flooring
➮Laminated flooring
➮Vinyl flooring
➮Porcelain or ceramic tile flooring
➮Natural stone flooring marble granite etc.

Standard dimensions➱ 

Flooring is provided above earth filling with base made of cement concrete 1 : 2 : for flooring material should have sufficient thickness and strength.

Walls➱ 

Walls are the vertical component in any structure it can be constructed using stones, bricks ,concrete blocks etc the different types of bonds are used for constructing walls .bricks walls are essential to enclose the inside area and protect against wind, sunshine, rain, etc. doors and windows are provided in the walls for ventilation and access to the building.

Standard dimensions➱

walls may be made single brick walls or double brick walls the single brick wall has a thickness of 100 millimetres in the double brick wall has a thickness of 230 millimetres.

RCC column➱ 

Columns are vertical members constructed to support any structural frame load coming from the slab, beam transferred to column and column transfer a load to the footing safely.

Building structure may have two types of columns architectural columns and structural columns architectural columns primly used to increase the aesthetic appearance of building while a structural column takes the load coming from the slab above and transfers safely to the foundation.

Standard dimensions➱ 

column may have various sizes as per the structural load requirements but for minimum dimension for any structural column is restricted to 9 X 9 or 225 mm X 225 mm.

Building Construction - Process, components and materials

Sill level➱ 

It is the base point of any window in the house or it is a level where windows are placed. sill level is very important to ensure evenness in all window level sill is a height which is ensuring that the proper amount of light enters in the house it also provides easy to habitat to look outside through the window without any discomfort dotted provides a solid base for window installment.

Standard dimensions➱

Sill level of any house should be around 3 feet or 900 millimetres.

Building Construction - Process, components and materials

Lintel➱ 

Lintels are constructed from reinforced cement concrete it is provided above the wall openings like doors, windows etc. the lintel actually takes the load coming on window and door openings.

In sort, lintel safeguard the door and window from excess load coming from above in residential building lintel can be constructed from concrete or brick masonry,

Standard dimension➱ 

Generally, the lintel width is the same as the width of wall and thickness between 4 inch to 6 inch.

Ceiling➱ 

Ceiling is not a separate part but is a bottom face of any slab ceiling is most important part of any room because it can be decorated to increase aesthetic appearance POP(Plaster of Paris) is a material used for making false ceilings. it is a location where we can hang decorative items. fan etc to increase architecture view of room.

Standard dimension➱ 

Ceiling height is kept 9′ 6″ to 10′ 6″ it can be more or less as per requirement.

Chhajjas➱

Chhajjas is also called as weather shed this is a structure which is constructed above window projected outside from window face the main function of weather shed to restrict the direct entry of rainwater and sunlight hatches are constructed from reinforced cement concrete.

Standard dimensions➱ 

The length of chhajjas = width of window + 0.15 M bearing on both side

Width of chhajjas = 0.45 M to 0.60 m

RCC beam

RCC beam is important component in any frame structure beam is horizontal member which connect column on both side. it main function is to take load from upper structure and transfer it to column. generally column to beam connection is called direct support while the beam to beam connection is called indirect support in most of cases the beam supported by two columns and the most rarely used is the cantilever beam.

Standard dimension➱ 

Minimum Beam dimension is 9″X 9″

Building Construction - Process, components and materials

Roof or RCC slab➱ 

Roof is an Important and essential  component for any building structure which provides protection against environmental factors such as Sun, wind and rain.normally all roof rests on sidewalls and required anchoring so that wind and another mechanical  impact cannot destroy it. roof may have different shapes but flat and sloped roofs are more popular typically most of roofs are constructed from RCC, stone slab,tiles etc.

Standard dimension➱ 

Generally RCC slab thickness can have minimum dimension 4″ to 6″ as per requirement.

Doors➱ 

Doors are the main entry and exit point of any house without doors there will be no security in house they are one which separates the one room from others doors have locked key facility, so we can lock the house by locking the door and go out freely they are made of strong material like steel, wood, iron ,therefore, they are not easily breakable.

There are different types of doors used in house.
➮Hinged doors
➮Dutch doors
➮Roller doors
➮Bi-fold doors and many more these are discussed below

Standard dimension➱

Main door of the drawing-room, bedroom, kitchen may have a width up to 2’6″ to 3′ and other rooms like bath, W / C is 2′ to 3′ height of doors is almost 7′ every time or up to lintel level.

Windows➱ 

Windows are one of an essential component of any house or building it is one that allows fresh air and light to enter into the house without window house becomes darkroom or jail.

Windows are provided at sill level and their height extended up to lintel level there are various types of windows used in house like

➮Single hung windows
➮Arched windows
➮Awning windows
➮Bay windows
➮Bow windows
➮Casement windows and many more are discussed below

Standard dimension➱ 

Window opening width may change depending as per requirement but its height generally kept 1.4 m From sill level or up to the bottom of the lintel.

Parapet walls➱ 

It’s a Low height wall built along the edge of the roof, terrace, walkway, balcony etc. it is generally constructed with single brick wall.It can be constructed using RCC, Steel, aluminium, glass etc.

Standard dimensions➱ 

Parapet wall height is 3 feet-0.9 m

Building Construction - Process, components and materials

Waterproofing on terrace➱ 

Damp proof course is the protective layer to restrict the movement of moisture water through roof slab. for DPC on roof flexible materials are used which provide a lesser number of joints like mastic, asphalt, Bitumen felts, plastic sheets etc.

Building Construction - Process, components and materials

Copping➱ 

Coping is structure which is constructed on top of boundary walls and parapet wall etc to protect rain water directly store on brick masonry wall.

The main function of coping is to drain off rainwater during the rainy season end improves the aesthetics of the structure/wall.

Building Construction - Process, components and materials

The standard room size and location in residential building➱

What are the standard room size and location in residential buildings in this video you come to know about the various standard dimensions of different elements of residential houses.

Area limitations➱ 

The limitation of area and height of the buildings of different types of construction and occupancy is achieved by satisfying floor area ratio (FAR). FAR is taking into account the following aspect.

➮Occupancy class
➮Type of construction
➮Width of the street fronting the building and the traffic load
➮The density and locality where the building is proposed
➮Parking facilities
➮Local firefighting facilities
➮Water supply and drainage facilities

Floor area ratio(far) = total cover area of all floors / plot area 

The floor area ratio is generally in between 1.0 to 2.0 depends on the type of construction.

For example, if a plot measures 15 m X  20 m and building bay- laws stipulates permissible FAR as 2.0 , then the maximum built-up area which can be put on the plot is 600 square meters. if the area covered at ground floor is 150 square meters, the total number of floors that can be constructed is (600/150)= 4,

Height of the building➱ 

The height and number of the story for a building are related to FAR and the provisions of open spaces are already explained earlier dot where the building height is not covered by FAR, the maximum height should be limited to the width of the street as follows,➮

➱The maximum height of the building shall not exceed two times the width of road abutting plus the front open space.

➱If a building abuts on two or more streets of different widths, the building shall be deemed to face upon the street that has the greater width and the building height shall be regulated by the width of that street and may be continued to this height to a depth of 24 m long the narrower street subject to the conformity of open spaces.

➱In the vicinity of aerodromes, the maximum height fixed in consultation with civil aviation authorities.

 Appurtenances is like a water tank on the roof ventilating and air-conditioning appliances, lift room, chimneys and parapet walls not exceeding 1.2 m height are not included in the height of the building.

Standard room size and location in residential building➱ 

The minimum Room size and location for different types of room:➮

➱Bed room, Living room, Drawing room, Dining room, Study room.

Minimum area: 9.5 sqm 

standard living room size 9 feet x 10 feet.

Minimum size of side: 

1- For single room the Minimum width should be 2.4 meter.
2-Where there are two rooms one of these shall not be less than 9.5 square M and others not less than 7.5 square m with a minimum width of 2.1 m.

The height of room: the of all room for human habitation shall not be less than 2.75 m

Other requirement: For air conditioning room height should not less than 2.4 m.

The recommended standard room size and location for the living room of various sizes are as below-


Size Dimension in meter + (Area) Dimension in Feet + (Area)
Large 6.71 X 8.53(57.24) 22 28(616)
Medium 4.88 6.01(29.33) 16 20(320)
Small  3.66 5.49(20) 12 18(216)
Very Small 3.05 3.66(11.16) 10 12(120)

Kitchen➱ 

Minimum Area: 5 sqm.

Minimum size of side: the width of the room should not be less than 1.8 meter and where is a separate store, the area of the kitchen may be reduced to 4.5 square meter, a kitchen that is intended to use as dining also shall have a floor area of not less than 7.5 sqm with minimum width 2.1 m.

The height of room: the kitchen height shall not less than 2.75 square m.

The recommended standard room size and location for the kitchen of various sizes are as below

Size Dimension in meter + (Area) Dimension in Feet + (Area)
Large 3.65 6.09(22.23) 12 20(240)
Medium 3.05 4.87(14.85) 10 16(160)
Small  3.05 2.44(6.10) 10 08(80)
Very Small 2.13 2.70(5.85) 07 09(63)

What is Consistency test of Cement click to know

Bathroom in water closet➱ 

Minimum area: 1.8 square meter (bathroom) 1.1 square meter (WC)

Minimum size of side: if bath in water closet are combined its floor area shall not be less than 2.8 square meter with minimum side width of 1.2 m.

The height of the room: shall not less than 2 M.

Other requirement 

It should be located such that at least one of its walls open to the external wall.

It should not be directly over or under any other room than another latrine washing place bath or Terrace in case of multi-storied buildings unless the floor is watertight.

it should have a platform or seat of watertight non absorbent materials.

it should be provided with the impervious floor sloping towards the drain with a suitable grade and not towards veranda or any other room.

The recommended dimensions of common bathroom of different sizes are as below: 

Size Dimension in meter + (Area) Dimension in Feet + (Area)
Large 2.13 3.66(7.8) 12(84)
Medium 1.83 3.05(5.6) 10(60)
Small  1.52 2.75(4.20) 9(45)
Very Small 1.06 1.98(2.04) 3.5 6.5(22.75)

Storeroom➱ 

Minimum area: the minimum area of storerooms should not be less than 3 sqm.

The height of store room: The store room’s height should not be less than 2.2 meter.

The recommended standard dimensions off storeroom of various sizes are as below:- 

Size Dimension in meter + (Area) Dimension in Feet + (Area)
Large 3.65 4.2615.55) 12 14(168)
Medium 2.44 3.05(7.42) 10(80)
Small  1.52 1.83(2.80) 6(30)
Very Small

Garage➱

Minimum area: The minimum area of garage should not be less than 12.5 square Meter.

The height of room: The garage should not be less than 2.4 Meter.

Staircase➱ 

Minimum size of side: The Minimum standard width of the stair is  taken 1 Meter.

The height of stair: The Minimum Standard clear Headroom’s height  shall be 2.2 meter.

Other requirement: 

➯The minimum width of tread without nosing shall be 250 millimetres for residential buildings.
➯The maximum height of rising shall be 190 millimeters for residential buildings.

Plinth height➱ 

The height of the plinth shall not be less than 450 millimetres from the surrounding ground level. a height of 600 millimetres is the best from drainage or other considerations.

Parapet wall➱ 

Parapet walls and handrails provided on the edges of roof terraces, balcony, veranda, etc shall be not less than 1.05 m and not more than 1.20 m in height from the finished floor level.

Boundary Wall➱

The requirements for the boundary wall are as following-

Except with special permission of the authority, the maximum height of the compound wall shall be 1.5 m above the center line of the front street. Compound wall height up to 2.4 meter height may be allowed if the top 0.9 meter is of an open type construction of a design should be approved by the concerned authority.

Minimum ceiling height standards for residential house➱ 

However, if there is no rule to follow contractors and development both public and private sectors tend to reduce the size of dwellings being developed whilst trying to avoid any reduction in value. bye- law for minimum height and size standards allows well-planned and systematic construction of house and towns, and provide proper utilization of space.

How ceiling height is decided➱  

Human height in different position

Before deciding the minimum ceiling height we need to understand human height in different positions in a room as seen in the figure the average human height is around 5 feet 5 inches but, we raise our hand upward it’s around 6 feet 6 inch maximum. so considering this fact the minimum height of the ceiling is taken.

Minimum ceiling height inhabitable room➱  

As we know that the minimum height of door height is about 7 feet for all doors in the house each door of the house. must have a minimum height of 7 feet this is because of the fact that human average height is about 5.5 feet and when we raise hand upward is about 6 feet 6 inches. so, there must be a gap between our hand and door frame bottom of the top frame.

Nowadays, architects and engineers keep the floor to ceiling height about 10 feet in most cases. again let’s understand this fact also.

Total floor top to ceiling top is about 10 feet. deducting the thickness of the slab becomes 9 feet 6 inches.

Let’s consider fan handing from the bottom of the ceiling is about 1.5 feet downward sight and when any men raise its hand toward ceiling straight as height becomes 7 feet. So The gap remains between men’s hand and bottom of the ceiling fan will be

 = 9 feet 6 inches -7 feet -1.5 feet = 1 foot or 12 inches. 

Therefore from the above fact we can conclude that the minimum ceiling height should at least 9 feet 6 inches for any habitable room in residential building.

Minimum ceiling height in sunken slab of bath and w / c➱ 

Generally, sunken slab for bath and w / c is about 1 to 1.5 feet sunken below the slab. so, if total ceiling height is about 9 feet 6 inches then space left below we’ll be around 7 feet 6 inches.

Therefore the minimum ceiling height for Beth and W / C sunken slab should be 7 feet 6 inches.

Minimum ceiling height for various rooms in house➱  

living room / drawing-room➱ 

the living room of any house is a place or area where the homeowners and family members gather to spend time together dot it’s an area designed for recreation but also for entertainment space where guests are welcomed when visit the living room also termed as drawing-room.

The minimum ceiling height for the living room from the top of floor to bottom of the ceiling should be not less than 2.75 M or 9 feet 6 inches.

In the case of an air conditioned room the minimum height should not less than 2.4 m or 7 feet 8 inches. measured from the top of the floor to the lowest point of a/c duct or the fall ceiling should be provided.

Kitchen➱ 

The kitchen is the most important and essential room in any house because it is the center of your family’s day-to-day living. everyone’s day starts in your kitchen with a cup of coffee or energizing breakfast to start your day. kitchen space used to make meals for your family in your kitchen and probably even eat in your kitchen.

As the kitchen area is a continuously used area of any house. its ceiling height should not be less than 2.75 M or 9 feet 6 inches.

Bedroom➱  

A bedroom of any house is one of a private room where people usually sleep for the night or relax during the day it is estimated that humans spent our one-third life by sleeping and most of the time we are asleep we are sleeping in a bedroom.

The minimum ceiling height of the bedroom should not less than 2.3 m or 7 feet 6 inches measure from top tiles to the bottom of the ceiling.

Storeroom➱   

The storeroom sometimes attached to the kitchen is the place for storing grains foodstuff and/or junk in the house for their ready availability and use in an emergency.

The minimum ceiling height of the storeroom should not less than 2.3 m or 7 feet 6 inches measured from top tiles to the bottom of the ceiling.

Bath and water closet➱    

It is an area sometimes attached soiled and often a bathtub in a shower.

The minimum ceiling height of the bath and toilet should not less than 2.3 m or 7 feet 6 inches measured from top tiles to the bottom of the ceiling.

Garage➱   

It is a place where house owner vehicle repaired, perked, serviced and also used for storing used parts and accessories of the vehicle,

The minimum ceiling height of the garage should not be less than 7 feet. but generally, it is kept more than 7 feet.

mezzanine floor➱  

A mezzanine floor is an extra floor between two main floors, and therefore it is not counted on the main floors of any building.

The minimum ceiling height of the room with the mezzanine floor from ceiling to top flooring of the ground floor is about 14 feet 4 m.

Minimum ceiling height basement➱  

the minimum ceiling height of the basement should be at least 7 feet to 9 feet.

Standard height of window from floor level➱ 

The standard height of the window from floor level is an important point of discussion while constructing a new house or renovating an old house. the proper height of the window is very important for comfortable living as it permits the Sun and natural air entry from the exact level.

What is window ?➱ 

A window is one type of opening in the wall which provides passage to pass light sound and sometimes air modern windows generally have glazed or covered with transparent or translucent material.

The windows are the most important part of any house which provides light, fresh air, and ventilation in the house. windows are also useful for the purposes of architectural decoration. the windows provided allows light into the room enhance your wall colors or furniture it provided seasonal utility like allows Sun heat into the room and close the opening during summer to avoid outer heat to enter the house.

Types of window➱ 

there are different types of windows available in the market you can choose from them as per your requirements. the windows can have different shapes like square rectangular, and even triangular, some windows open outward, some slide up-down, or slides one side to open these types are available in different materials like wood, steel, aluminum and PVC also used to make a window.

Following are the 18 popular types of the window as listed below- 

➱Single hung windows
➱Double hung windows
➱Arched windows
➱Awning windows
➱Bay windows
➱Bow windows
➱Casement windows
➱Egress windows
➱Garden window
➱Glass block windows
➱Hopper windows
➱Jalousie windows
➱Picture windows
➱Round circle windows
➱Skylight windows
➱Sliding windows
➱Storm windows
➱Transom windows

What is standard size of window➱ 

Windows are a very essential part of any house. for a simple residential building or house, a minimum of 15 percent area of the room is allowed to provide for window openings. that means we can provide a window opening area around 15 percent of the room area if the area of the room is 100 square foot then we can provide one window with size 4 feet x 4 ft for public and commercial building this is around 20 percent allowed,

Width of the window depends on the factors like- 

➱The dimension of the room
➱Use of the room
➱Location of the room
➱Direction and speed of prevailing winds
➱Climatic conditions of the region and
➱Local trends, aesthetic, view, etc

Following are some standard size of windows is mostly used in the house- 

The height of the window generally fix, but it can changed as per architectural and owner requirements windows height is fixed around  feet or up to the level of the door frame or a lintel level,

Standard height of window from floor level➱ 

 There are two levels that are important while placing the window in position.

sill level: – The level or distance from the floor to the bottom of the window frame is called the sill level it is generally kept about 900 millimetres or 3 feet.

Lintel level:- The level from the top of the floor level to the top of the door frame on which lintel is placed is called the lintel. level the lintel is generally provided to avoid direct load on the wall and distribute above wall load to below load the lintel is generally made up of reinforced concrete or cement mortar lintel level is provided as same as the height of the door which is generally 2.1 m or 7 feet.

So, the standard height of the door from floor level is 2.1 meter or 7 feet ,it can be simply calculated by following calculations,

The height of window from level of floor = door height – window height 

in case the height of the door is taken 7 feet and the height of the window is taken 4 feet then the

Height of the window will be = 7 feet – 4 feet = 3 feet 

The standard height of window from floor level is 900 millimetres or 3 feet it can vary depending upon the size of the window, ceiling height,and owner requirement.

Types of doors for your perfect house➱ 

What is door➱ 

Doors are defined as “the movable structure used for opening and closing an entrance or forgiving access in or out of something”

A frame used for given access to indoor or outdoor as to a building or room or giving access to a closet, cupboard etc most doors turn on hinges, slide in grooves, or revolve on an axis

Importance of doors 

We all know the proverb that the first impression is usually the last and this is true especially for entrance to our homes the entrance of any house creates a lasting impression on visitors mind but somehow doors remain unnoticed unless either they are elegantly done or completed in Bad shape.

Doors are the major important element of any home they do not only provide aesthetically pleasing but also have features like durability, strength, water and heat resistance, and it should not warp with time. past days have been gone now doors were used for the mere purpose of maintaining privacy and security. nowadays doors become important aesthetic appearance structure an integral part of a home’s interiors.

Types of doors➱ 

Following are that major types of doors:- 

➱Hinged doors
➱Dutch doors
➱Pocket doors
➱Roller doors
➱Bi-fold doors
➱Sliding doors
➱Pivot doors
➱French doors
➱Panel doors
➱PVC doors
➱Flush doors
➱Battened and ledged doors
➱Bamboo doors
➱Glass doors
➱Aluminum doors
➱Fiberglass door
➱Fiber reinforced plastic doors
➱Steel doors
➱Louvered doors
➱Swing doors
➱Collapsible doors
➱Sliding doors
➱Rolling shutters
➱Glazed Slash
➱Revolving doors
➱Wooden or timber door

Hinged doors➱ 

A hinged door generally made of either a solid wooden panel door or hollow core door affixed to a doer jamb with two or more hinges.

These types of doors are too common and are useful in almost any application in which a doer is required these doors are generally located as front entry rear entry interior and wardrobe doors.

Dutch doors➱ 

A Dutch door also nose is double hung or half door sometimes and is a doer that split in half horizontally allowing the top half to open while the bottom half stays shut secure tight bolt holds the two halves together and it operates as a normal door. nowadays Dutch doors popular for their practicality as well as their old-world feel. these doors are the prime choice for interior doors as well allowing you to keep an eye and ear on children and animals while keeping them in or out of a certain part of the house

Pocket doors➱ 

The special feature of pocket doors is that it gets disappear into a special cavity inside the wall when opened. these doors generally have top hung and slide along a track mounted on the ceiling many house owners choice for pocket doors simply because they like the style. the pocket sliding door is sometimes used to separate two rooms so that they may be joined as needed.

Roller doors➱ 

Roller doors mostly used for garages and storage facilities however they are an extremely trendy addition to a living room for instance.

Bi-fold doors➱ 

Bi-folding doors are generally used for seamless connections between inside and out side of any house. bi-folding designs are not like Dutch or French but they give stacked neatly out of the way providing gloriously open access to the garden and an expansive feeling inside.

Sliding doors➱ 

Sliding doors are also known as bypassed doors and are generally used for locations including large opening as that discovered in a bedroom or closets. sliding doors do not swing open and rather you have to move them on the track and that’s why they do not disrupt other components of the space therefore just a part of the opening is accessible at a time.

Pivot doors➱  

The pivot doors are simply designed to rotate about its vertical axis these doors are available with or without a stopper this door can effortlessly rotate 360 degrees in its own axis.

The pivot doors are made with complicated hinges hidden on the top and bottom of the door which forms the center from where the door Tate’s these types of doors.

French doors➱ 

A French door generally made up of one piece and has the light construction with glass panes extending for most of its length dot they are also known as French windows.

If you are searching for something different and eyes catching French doors would be the ideal choice these types of doors have hinges set up on each side of the opening and they swing to each other in full fill in the center they provide an unblocked view when both side doors are opened.

Panel doors➱  

The past panel doors are very popular for quite some time its name gives the idea about its making that the door is crafted not of one single piece of wood or other material.

Generally panel doors are most suitable for exterior doors but if you want a hey ah fire door that can better deaden sound then you can have panel doors installed as interior doors as well.

PVC doors➱ 

PVC or polyvinyl chloride is a very popular material choice for doors in your bathroom these lightweight doors minimize your work while maximizing your investment.

These doors look like painted wooden doors that do not need any maintenance which is for the absorbent natural fibers of the wood if you go for PVC shower doors you’ll find that they’re simple to install and easy to clean.

Flush door➱ 

A flush door is made of solid block board core vertical Stiles and horizontal rails that create a pre fixed frame and block board is composed of wooden strips.

They bonded under high pressure and temperature using a synthetic resin so we can say that the flush door is a Dewar that is made of a timber frame covered with ply from both sides the hollow part Left on is filled with rectangular blocks of softwood.

Afterward the final decorative finish is given by fixing the veneer on the top it is named as a flush door because it has an entirely smooth surface and if water splashed on its surface it would simply flow off its surface without accumulating.

Battened and ledged doors➱ 

These types of doors composed of vertical boards called battens which are nailed or screwed to horizontal members called Ledger’s the battens used are generally 15 to 18 centimetres wide and 2 to 3 centimetres thick normally narrow battened doors have a better appearance.

These doors can be either braced or braced and framed to offer rigidness in a much better look such doors are mostly utilized for toilets, baths, WC and other rooms as well as in homes where the economy is the prime factor to consider.

Bamboo door➱ 

Bamboo strip can be used in doors and windows, including their frames and so on one common option to the wood item is the jute coir composite board which can be made use of for the manufacture of doors.

Doors composed of bamboo Jude have the benefit of being water resistant, rust resistant, termite resistant, environmentally friendly, biodegradable and expense efficient.

Glass door➱ 

Glass is most commonly used for windows and doors primarily for paneling it depends on owner weather like to use glass doors can be made out of glass for particular areas generally glass doors most suitable location is on the back side as it offers an unblocked view of the yard or garden.

Front doors made of glass also look gorgeous however care needs to be required to guarantee both personal privacy and sturdiness fixing one panel of glass set into wood frames are irregular and gorgeous alternative for front doors.

Glass door is more expensive compared to others and needs more effort to upkeep these doors have more weight than other doors besides being pricey.

Aluminum doors➱ 

When you plan to give elegance look to your house what types of door do you prefer ? perhaps the best choice for you would be aluminum aluminum doors already first choice option for contemporary architecture because of the security, aesthetics and insulation properties it gives.

As it well known fact that aluminum is a durable and sturdy material that doesn’t need too much maintenance there is no doubt about the quality of aluminum. it has already been tested through a bit expensive it’s actually one of the best choices in the door market aluminum doors can be used for both residential and commercial purposes it’s perfect for glazing and glass fronts providing you with a high quality frame.

Fiberglass door➱ 

Generally glass fiber is manufactured by bonding fiber with resin that can be utilized to produce a variety of products consisting of bathtubs, doors, and windows and so on.

Fiberglass is proven to be one of the most solidified products with fairly low upkeep expenses as compared with wood and steel fiberglass doors are well-known as steady as they do not warp, bow or twist.

Windows and doors made up of fiberglass can be offered with wood panels on the surface to surpass the visual Appeals doors manufactured out of fiberglass can be utilized for both outside and interior areas.

Fiber reinforced plastic doors➱ 

Fiber reinforced plastic has high strength it can be put to numerous usages consisting of manufacture of doors FRP doors are available in many colors and surfaces consisting of natural wood surfaces in the market.

These types of doors may have 2 leaves of 1.5 millimetres density and Leafs are molded over a core product forming a sandwich panel FRP doors are one of the popular choice for modern day house construction.

Collapsible doors➱ 

The collapsible doors are composed of vertical double channels (20 X 10 X 2 millimetres) join together with hollows on the inside to create an artificial gap channels are spaced about 100 mm to 200 millimetres apart and braced with diagonal iron flats which allow the shutter to open close giving an appearance of a steel curtain the doors shutter operates within two rails one fixed to the floor and the other at the lintel roller fixed on top supports the equivalent movement in both directions for easier operation.

Sliding glass doors➱ 

These doors are generally utilized where there is space limitation for the swing of a hinged door or for aesthetic purposes these doors are commonly used in commercial structures.

The doors shutters slides horizontally along the tracks with the help of runners and rails generally the door is hung by two trolley hangers at the top of the door running in a concealed track while at the bottom rollers are provided to slide the shutter in the channel track for providing easy movement plastic rollers are fixed at top bottom.

Rolling shutters➱  

Rolling shutters are generally used for shops /go downs this shutter works as a barrier and provides protection against fire and theft’s wind and hails.

The rolling shutter is made of steel slabs called laths or slates which are around 1.25 centimeters thick interlocked with each other and coiled upon a specially designed pipe shaft called drum mounted at the top.

Such an arrangement is made that shutter moves in two vertical steel guide channels mounted at the ends the channels may be made of steel sheets deep enough to accommodate shutter and to keep it in position.

The rolling door is raised to open it and lowered to close it on large rolling shutter doors more than 10 square meter the action may be motorized.

Glazed / Slash➱ 

Glazed or Slash doors are the same as framed paneled doors except one of the panel’s is replaced with a glass to improve visibility of the interior room.

Revolving doors➱ 

This door has a central shaft with four wings that hang on it the shaft rotates around the vertical axis within around enclosure.

The doors central shaft is fitted with a ball bearing arrangement at the bottom which allows the shutters to move without any jerk and making noise.

These types of doors may be fully penalty glazed or partly glazed.

Wooden or timber door➱ 

These types of doors are primarily used for interior door applications timber is the oldest material used for the doors and timber never seems out of fashion there are many good reasons for using wood such as wooden doors provide soundproofing insulation and security. they are easy to install and clean. they have a long life being a natural material they have a different appeal. they do look elegant they are very costly.

How to reduce construction cost➱ 

Building a dream home is everyone’s aspiration everyone person wants to construct a Ahmed where they can cherish their memories but when people want to make their dream into reality it is very hard to fulfill it is because house construction cost is not cheap nowadays for the middle class family is about investing their whole life income in building a home.

That’s why many people find it a large investment in their life for this reason they try to save as much as possible to get the optimum value of their price also some people go for loans that are why it is necessary to effectively use the money to get maximum benefit it is not a big task.

Selection of plot➱ 

Because that can reduce your transportation cost for a lifetime but many sellers are there who take the opportunity of high demand and sell the roadside plots at a very high price so be careful while choosing the plot if you are getting it a little far from the main road then it is okay.

Conduct soil test➱  

While selecting a plot just not focus on the communication facility but do soil test which is a much essential part of the construction because there are different types of soils are available and each soil behaves differently before buying the plot check the soil if it is a paddy field agricultural field or soil with hard soil.

Because if the soil is not good or if it is a loose soil then there you will have to expense a huge cost and after if it comes to know that plot having paddy field then the foundation cost is huge and again to get permission to make the home is huge.

Confirm electrical and water supply an area➱ 

If there is no electric and water connection near your plot then you have to apply for a separate pole connection near your home and have to make a separate connection for plumbing which is again expensive so look after these factors before buying a plot.

Choosing construction materials➱ 

In any type of construction building materials play a major Cost effective role among all the construction material bricks, cement, rod and sand make a large part of the construction material if you purchase material. in the lot main one order for whole material manner then there will be less expenditure regarding construction material. because the dealer will give you more discount as you purchase more amount of material.

Prepare structural drawings➱ 

Preparing structural drawings for the house is essential the majority of people ignore this and don’t know about the structural drawings of buildings they only thought about the architectural drawings of the building but structural drawing is all about foundation plan detail framing plan detail column and beam plan detail and other structural components of buildings from this structural drawing how much amount of rod send cement and bricks will be required can be calculated in advance and if this is done accurately then there is a chance of saving lots of money.

Saving and finishing materials➱ 

Not only is the construction material only responsible for rising costs along with that finishing the material is also responsible while we consider finishing work there is flooring material doors and windows and especially wooden works for interior absorbs a huge cost.

But this can be reduced if you are choosing proper material and buying material in bulk amount at a time if you are purchasing this material in phase by phase manner the shopkeeper may not give you a discount but if you are purchasing in a bulk amount and from one shopkeeper then you can save your money.

Do not make change after construction starts➱ 

Sometimes people approve one plan before construction and during construction they suddenly change their plan this is one of the major reasons which again increases the construction cost dot try to avoid this thing unless and until it is necessary.

Go for pre-fabrication work➱ 

To minimize the cost of house construction you use modern technology use prefabricated parts for the construction of your home in this type of construction a part of the building is constructed at the factory or in a separate place and then combined to a site to make the house it has a lot of benefits it not only reduces the cost but also reduces the time of construction.

Use fly ash instead of red bricks

 If you want to reduce the cost then choose to fly ash bricks instead of red bricks or other bricks fly ash bricks are less costlier than red bricks but have good strength for construction . it can reduce the cost of construction in a considerable amount.

Select good color and putter➱ 

If you wish to reduce color cost then go for lime based color put the color twice to make the color brighter . don’t use putty generally putty is often used when we need a smooth wall surface or the wall is very rough or there are larger sand particles showing to avoid extra cost for putty always purchased the standard size of sand for the purpose of plastering.

Saving in labor cost➱ 

Labor cost is also a large part of the construction which cannot cut easily but try to calculate the works in hours how much labor will be required to finish work and how much time in this way you can save your cost by estimating the labor cost otherwise the labor will work according to their time and you have to expense more.

Saving in machinery cost➱ 

Construction machines are always hired on a rental basis and their rental cost is too high so try to take maximum advantages of construction machinery in a calculated way by which construction cost can be saved.

Saving and flooring

flooring can be done both costly or economically tiles come in odd pricing range select one of them according to your budget also cement flooring is a great option. to reduce the construction cost and one of the long-lasting flooring.

Saving in wooden work➱ 

As far as possible if there is no essential need for wooden work try to avoid it you can also try to avoid the use of costly woods for construction instead you can use a jack fruit tree while Jack jungle jack and similar wood most available in your place to reduce the total cost of wood up to 50%.

Selecting good shape of house➱ 

The shape of the house also contributes to increasing the cost of construction when the size of home increases it increases the surface area and ultimately the cost of construction so try to sign house such a way that it will reduce the surface area and reduce the cost.

Reduce numbers of wall➱ 

Make the home more spacious by reducing the number of walls it ultimately reduces the surface area and also decreases the cost it also permits natural light to enter the house and decreases the number of electricity expenses.

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